The Effect of Competences, Work Motivation, Learning Environment on Human Resource Performance

Main Article Content

Hastuti Mulang


This research is motivated by efforts to improve the quality of education, and teacher performance has not been achieved as expected. This can be seen from the number of students' achievement decreases. Due to the teacher's performance has not yet produced a standard output of students who excel. The cause that occurs can not be separated from the competence, motivation, and learning environment that still has to be improved. These three variables directly or indirectly have an influence on teacher performance and the quality of education. This study aims to determine and analyze the effect of competence, motivation, learning environment on teacher performance, the quality of education, and indirect effects through teacher performance on the quality of education. The population of this study was all elementary school teachers at the Education Office of South Sulawesi Province. The total sample study is 393 respondents. The data were analyzed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) utilizing AMOS 18. The study results found that direct or indirect effect the competence, motivation, learning environment had a positive and significant effect on teacher performance, as well as relationship antecedent variables on the quality of education. Including the performance of teachers, effect on quality of education.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mulang, H. (2021). The Effect of Competences, Work Motivation, Learning Environment on Human Resource Performance. Golden Ratio of Human Resource Management, 1(2), 84 - 93.


Afroz, R., Muhibbullah, M., & Morshed, M. N. (2020). Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Economic Growth and Population Health in Malaysia. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(4), 155–162.

Bhamani, S., Makhdoom, A. Z., Bharuchi, V., Ali, N., Kaleem, S., & Ahmed, D. (2020). Home learning in times of COVID: Experiences of parents. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 7(1), 9–26.

Bosveld, M. H., van Doorn, D. P. C., Stassen, P. M., Westerman, D., Bergmans, D. C. J. J., van der Horst, I. C. C., & van Mook, W. N. K. A. (2020). Lessons learned: Contribution to healthcare by medical students during COVID-19. Journal of Critical Care, 10–13.

Burhan, N. A. S., Mohamad, M. R., Kurniawan, Y., & Sidek, A. H. (2014). National intelligence, basic human needs, and their effect on economic growth. Intelligence, 44, 103–111.

Caporael, L. R., & Baron, R. M. (2013). Groups as the mind’s natural environment. In Evolutionary social psychology (pp. 339–366). Psychology Press.

Carmeli, A., & Dothan, A. (2017). Generative work relationships as a source of direct and indirect learning from experiences of failure: Implications for innovation agility and product innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 119, 27–38.

Čech, M., Yao, W., Samolejová, A., Li, J., & Wicher, P. (2016). Human Resource Management in Chinese manufacturing companies. Perspectives in Science, 7, 6–9.

Chick, R. C., Clifton, G. T., Peace, K. M., Propper, B. W., Hale, D. F., Alseidi, A. A., & Vreeland, T. J. (2020). Using technology to maintain the education of residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Surgical Education, 77(4), 729–732.

Dai, T., Hein, C., & Zhang, T. (2019). Understanding how Amsterdam City tourism marketing addresses cruise tourists’ motivations regarding culture. Tourism Management Perspectives, 29(October 2018), 157–165.

Deegan, C. (2002). Introduction: The legitimising effect of social and environmental disclosures – a theoretical foundation. In Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal.

Dong, L. N. T., & Phuong, N. N. D. (2018). Organizational justice, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior in higher education institutions: A research proposition in Vietnam. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 5(3), 113–119.

Dwi Riyanti, B. P., Sandroto, C. W., & Warmiyati D.W, M. T. (2016). Soft Skill Competencies, Hard Skill Competencies, and Intention to Become Entrepreneur of Vocational Graduates. International Research Journal of Business Studies, 9(2), 119–132.

Evans, L. (2008). Professionalism, professionality and the development of education professionals. British Journal of Educational Studies, 56(1), 20–38.

Feola, G., & Nunes, R. (2014). Success and failure of grassroots innovations for addressing climate change: The case of the transition movement. Global Environmental Change, 24(1), 232–250.

Forrest, S. (2004). Learning and teaching: the reciprocal link. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 35(2), 74–79.

Haerani, S., Sumardi, Hakim, W., Hartini, & Putra, A. H. P. K. (2020). Structural Model of Developing Human Resources Performance: Empirical Study of Indonesia States Owned Enterprises. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(3), 211–221.

Heikkilä, J.-P., Rentto, O., & Feng, Y. (2017). Aiming for Strategic e-HRM: Motives and Consequences of e-HRM Implementation in an MNC. Electronic HRM in the Smart Era, 173–199.

Hu, J. (2020). Gamification in Learning and Education: Enjoy Learning Like Gaming: By Sangkyun Kim, Kibong Song, Barbara Lockee, and John Burton. Pp 159. Pp 138. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG. 2018.£ 55.16,(hbk). ISBN 978-3-319-47282-9 (hbk). Taylor & Francis.

Huang, C.-C., Jin, H., Zhang, J., Zheng, Q., Chen, Y., Cheung, S., & Liu, C. (2020). The Effects of an Innovative E-Commerce Poverty Alleviation Platform on Chinese Rural Laborer Skills Development and Family Well-Being. Children and Youth Services Review, 105189.

Husni, H. (2020). The Effect of Inquiry-based Learning on Religious Subjects Learning Activities: An Experimental Study in High Schools. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Islam, 8(1), 43–54.

Julius Ongong, J., & Ifedha Akaranga, S. (2013). Work Ethics For Lecturers: An Example Of Nairobi And Kenyatta Universities. International Journal of Arts and Commerce ISSN, 2(8), 1929–7106.

Kang, J. Y., Lee, M. K., Fairchild, E. M., Caubet, S. L., Peters, D. E., Beliles, G. R., & Matti, L. K. (2019). Relationships Among Organizational Values, Employee Engagement, and Patient Satisfaction in an Academic Medical Center. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes, 1–13.

Kudasheva, T., Kunitsa, S., & Mukhamediyev, B. (2015). Effects of Access to Education and Information-communication Technology on Income Inequality In Kazakhstan. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 940–947.

Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30–43.

Lorinkova, N. M., Pearsall, M. J., & Sims, H. P. (2012). Examining the Differential Longitudinal Performance of Directive versus Empowering Leadership in Teams. Academy of Management Journal, 56(2), 573–596.

Loyarte-López, E., García-Olaizola, I., Posada, J., Azúa, I., & Flórez, J. (2020). Sustainable career development for R&D professionals: Applying a career development system in Basque country. International Journal of Innovation Studies, 4(2), 40–50.

Margot, K. C., & Kettler, T. (2019). Teachers’ perception of STEM integration and education: a systematic literature review. International Journal of STEM Education, 6(1), 1–16.

Masouras, A., & Papademetriou, C. (2018). Digital Consumer Behaviour in Cyprus : from Uses and Gratifications Theory to Digital Consumer Behaviour in Cyprus : from Uses and Gratifications Theory to 4C ’ s Online Shopping Approach. Journal of Advertising and Public Relations, 1(August), 1–11.

Mayo, A. (2000). The role of employee development in the growth of intellectual capital. Personnel Review, 29(4), 521–533.

Mitchell, R., Schuster, L., & Jin, H. S. (2020). Gamification and the impact of extrinsic motivation on needs satisfaction: Making work fun? Journal of Business Research, 106(November 2017), 323–330.

Nguyen, H. M., Mai, L. T., & Huynh, T. L. (2019). The Role of Transformational Leadership toward Work Performance through Intrinsic Motivation: A Study in the Pharmaceutical Field in Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 6(4), 201–212.

Papp, I., Markkanen, M., & von Bonsdorff, M. (2003). Clinical environment as a learning environment: student nurses’ perceptions concerning clinical learning experiences. Nurse Education Today, 23(4), 262–268.

Park, S.-Y., & Hawang, M.-Y. (2015). Effects of Executive Compassion and Forgiving Behavior on Organizational Activities and Performance. Eun-Soo Chol / Journal of Distribution Science, 13(6), 105–118.

Patricia, A. (2020). College Students’ Use and Acceptance of Emergency Online Learning Due to COVID-19. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 100011.

Purwanto, A., Asbari, M., Fahlevi, M., Mufid, A., Agistiawati, E., Cahyono, Y., & Suryani, P. (2020). Impact of work from home (WFH) on Indonesian teachers performance during the Covid-19 pandemic: An exploratory study. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(5), 6235–6244.

Rina, A. H. P. K., Kusuma, A. H. P., Perdana, A. H., & Rina, A. H. P. K. (2017). Pengaruh kompetensi, budaya organisasi dan motivasi terhadap kinerja dosen perguruan tinggi swasta di kota makassar. Economics Bosowa, 3(008), 88–100.

Rodrigo, L., & Palacios, M. (2021). What antecedent attitudes motivate actors to commit to the ecosystem of digital social innovation? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 162(October 2020), 120394.

Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal.<509::AID-SMJ882>3.0.CO;2-Z

Ueno, K., & Krause, A. (2018). Overeducation, perceived career progress, and work satisfaction in young adulthood. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 55, 51–62.

Van den Berghe, L., Soenens, B., Aelterman, N., Cardon, G., Tallir, I. B., & Haerens, L. (2014). Within-person profiles of teachers’ motivation to teach: Associations with need satisfaction at work, need-supportive teaching, and burnout. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(4), 407–417.

VU, H. M. (2020). Relationship between Work-Life Balance, Religiosity and Employee Engagement: A Proposed Moderated Mediation Model. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(10), 339–345.

Yip, J. A., Schweitzer, M. E., & Nurmohamed, S. (2017). Trash-talking: Competitive incivility motivates rivalry, performance, and unethical behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 144, 125–144.